quinta-feira, 3 de setembro de 2015

Lista negra do Macarthismo



Macarthismo é a prática de fazer acusações de subversão ou de traição, sem a devida consideração à vidência. Significa, também, "a prática de fazer acusações injustas ou usando técnicas de investigação injustas, especialmente a fim de restringir a dissidência ou crítica política".  O termo tem suas origens no período, nos Estados Unidos, conhecido como a Segunda Red Scare, com duração aproximada de 1950-1956 e caracterizado por elevada repressão política contra os comunistas, bem como uma campanha espalhando o medo de sua influência sobre as instituições norte-americanas e de espionagem por agentes soviéticos. Originalmente cunhado para criticar as perseguições anti-comunistas, perseguições do senador republicano, o americano Joseph McCarthy de Wisconsin, o "macartismo" logo assumiu um significado mais amplo, descrevendo os excessos de esforços semelhantes. O termo também é usado agora mais geralmente para descrever imprudentes, acusações infundadas, bem como demagógicas ataques ao caráter ou patriotismo dos adversários políticos.

O período histórico que veio a ser conhecido como a era McCarthy começou bem antes de Joseph McCarthy. Muitos fatores contribuíram para o macarthismo, alguns deles remotam para os anos da Primeira Red Scare (1917-1920), inspirado pelo surgimento do comunismo como uma força política reconhecida. Graças em parte ao seu sucesso na organização de sindicatos de trabalhadores e sua oposição ao fascismo, o Partido Comunista dos Estados Unidos (CPUSA) aumentou sua participação através da década de 1930, atingindo um pico de cerca de 75.000 membros em 1940-1941.  Enquanto os Estados Unidos estavam envolvidos na II Guerra Mundial e aliado à União Soviética, a questão do anti-comunismo foi amplamente silenciada. Com o fim da II Guerra Mundial, a Guerra Fria começou quase imediatamente, com a União Soviética instalando regimes comunistas, regimes fantoches, em toda a Europa Central e Oriental, enquanto os Estados Unidos apoiavam as forças anti-comunistas na Grécia e China.

Algumas das pessoas mais notáveis ​​que foram colocados na lista negra ou sofreram algum outro perseguição durante o macarthismo estão listados aqui:

Nelson Algren, escritor 
Lucille Ball, atriz, modelo e executivo de estúdio de cinema.
Alvah Bessie, Abraham Lincoln Brigade, escritor, jornalista, roteirista, Hollywood Ten
Elmer Bernstein, compositor e maestro
Leonard Bernstein, maestro, pianista, compositor
David Bohm, físico e filósofo
Bertolt Brecht, poeta, dramaturgo, roteirista
Archie Brown, Abraham Lincoln Brigade, veterinário WW II, líder sindical, preso. Desafiou com sucesso o Landrum-Griffin Act
Esther Brunauer, forçado a sair do Departamento de Estado dos EUA
Luis Buñuel,  diretor de cinema, produtor
Charlie Chaplin, ator e diretor
Aaron Copland, compositor
Bartley Crum, advogado
Howard Da Silva,  ator
Jules Dassin, diretor
Dolores del Río, a atriz
Edward Dmytryk, diretor, Hollywood Ten
WEB Du Bois, ativista dos direitos civis e autor
George A. Eddy, pré-keynesiana economista de Harvard, especialista do Tesouro dos EUA a política monetária
Albert Einstein, Prêmio Nobel físico -winning, filósofo, matemático, ativista 
Hanns Eisler, compositor
Howard Fast, escritor 
Lion Feuchtwanger, romancista e dramaturgo
Carl Foreman, escritor de High Noon
John Garfield, ator
Jack Gilford, ator
Allen Ginsberg, batida poeta
Ruth Gordon, atriz 
Lee Grant, a atriz
Dashiell Hammett, autor
Elizabeth Hawes, designer de roupas, autor, ativista de direitos iguais
Lillian Hellman, dramaturgo
Dorothy Healey, sindicalista, CPUSA oficial 
Lena Horne, cantora
Langston Hughes, escritor, poeta, dramaturgo
Marsha Hunt, atriz
Sam Jaffe, o ator 
Theodore Kaghan, diplomata
Garson Kanin, escritor e diretor
Danny Kaye, comediante, cantor
Benjamin Keen, historiador 
Otto Klemperer, maestro e compositor
Gypsy Rose Lee, a atriz e stripper de 
Cornelius Lanczos, matemático e físico
Ring Lardner Jr., roteirista, Hollywood Ten
Arthur Laurents, dramaturgo 
Philip Loeb, o ator 
Joseph Losey, diretor
Albert Maltz, roteirista, Hollywood Ten
Heinrich Mann, romancista
Klaus Mann, escritor 
Thomas Mann, Prêmio Nobel romancista e ensaísta ganhar
Burgess Meredith, o ator
Arthur Miller, dramaturgo e ensaísta
Jessica Mitford, autor, muckraker. Recusou-se a testemunhar a HUAC.
Dimitri Mitropoulos, maestro, pianista, compositor
Zero Mostel, ator
Joseph Needham, bioquímico, sinólogo, historiador da ciência
J. Robert Oppenheimer, físico, diretor científico do Projeto Manhattan
Dorothy Parker, escritor, humorista 
Linus Pauling, químico, prêmios Nobel para Química e Paz
Samuel Reber, diplomata 
Al Richmond, sindicalista, editor 
Martin Ritt, ator e diretor 
Paul Robeson, ator, atleta, cantor, escritor, ativista político 
Edward G. Robinson, o ator 
Waldo Sal, roteirista
Jean Seberg, a atriz
Pete Seeger, cantor popular, compositor 
Artie Shaw, músico de jazz, bandleader, autor 
Irwin Shaw, escritor 
William L. Shirer, jornalista, autor 
Lionel Stander, ator
Dirk Jan Struik, matemático, historiador da matemática
Paul Sweezy, economista e fundador-editor da Monthly Review
Charles W. Thayer, diplomata 
Dalton Trumbo roteirista, Hollywood Ten
Tsien Hsue-shen, físico 
Sam Wanamaker, ator, diretor, responsável por recriar Globe Theatre de Shakespeare em Londres, Inglaterra.
Orson Welles, ator, autor, diretor de cinema 
Gene Weltfish, antropólogo demitido da Universidade de Columbia,

Os primeiros Citados: many of the names were reported in the press, including those of stars Humphrey Bogart, James Cagney, Katharine Hepburn, Melvyn Douglas and Fredric March, among other well-known Hollywood figures.

O início da lista: On July 29, 1946, William R. Wilkerson, publisher and founder of The Hollywood Reporter, published a "TradeView" column entitled "A Vote For Joe Stalin". It named as Communist sympathizers Dalton Trumbo, Maurice Rapf, Lester Cole, Howard Koch, Harold Buchman, John Wexley, Ring Lardner Jr., Harold Salemson, Henry Meyers, Theodore Strauss, and John Howard Lawson. 

Caçadores de bruxas famosos: The hearings opened with appearances by Walt Disney and Ronald Reagan, then president of the Screen Actors Guild.

Elia Kazan, criador do Actors Studio, foi o caçador de bruxas mais famoso e mais odiado.

Intelectuais perseguidos:

Alvah Bessie, screenwriter
Herbert Biberman, screenwriter and director
Lester Cole, screenwriter
Edward Dmytryk, director
Ring Lardner Jr., screenwriter
John Howard Lawson, screenwriter
Albert Maltz, screenwriter
Samuel Ornitz, screenwriter
Adrian Scott, producer and screenwriter
Dalton Trumbo, screenwriter
Hanns Eisler, composer
Bernard Gordon, screenwriter
Joan LaCour Scott, screenwriter

The Red Channels list

Larry Adler, actor and musician
Luther Adler, actor and director
Stella Adler, actor and teacher
Edith Atwater, actor
Howard Bay, scenic designer
Ralph Bell, actor
Leonard Bernstein, composer and conductor
Walter Bernstein, screenwriter
Michael Blankfort, screenwriter[c]
Marc Blitzstein, composer
True Boardman, screenwriter
Millen Brand, writer
Oscar Brand, folk singer
Joseph Edward Bromberg, actor
Himan Brown, producer and director
John Brown, actor
Abe Burrows, playwright and lyricist
Morris Carnovsky, actor
Vera Caspary, writer
Edward Chodorov, screenwriter and producer
Jerome Chodorov, writer
Mady Christians, actor
Lee J. Cobb, actor
Marc Connelly, playwright
Aaron Copland, composer
Norman Corwin, writer
Howard Da Silva, actor
Roger De Koven, actor
Dean Dixon, conductor
Olin Downes, music critic
Alfred Drake, actor and singer
Paul Draper, actor and dancer
Howard Duff, actor
Clifford J. Durr, attorney
Richard Dyer-Bennet, folk singer
José Ferrer, actor
Louise Fitch (Lewis), actor
Martin Gabel, actor
Arthur Gaeth, radio commentator
William S. Gailmor, journalist and radio commentator
John Garfield, actor
Will Geer, actor
Jack Gilford, actor and comedian
Tom Glazer, folk singer
Ruth Gordon, actor and screenwriter
Lloyd Gough, actor
Morton Gould, pianist and composer
Shirley Graham, writer
Ben Grauer, radio and TV personality
Mitchell Grayson, radio producer and director
Horace Grenell, conductor and music producer
Uta Hagen, actor and teacher
Dashiell Hammett, writer
E. Y. "Yip" Harburg, lyricist
Robert P. Heller, television journalist
Lillian Hellman, playwright and screenwriter
Jon Hering, intern
Nat Hiken, writer and producer
Rose Hobart, actor
Judy Holliday, actor and comedienne
Roderick B. Holmgren, journalist
Lena Horne, singer and actor
Langston Hughes, writer
Marsha Hunt, actor
Leo Hurwitz, director
Charles Irving, actor
Burl Ives, folk singer and actor
Sam Jaffe, actor
Leon Janney, actor
Joe Julian, actor
Garson Kanin, writer and director
George Keane, actor
Donna Keath, radio actor
Pert Kelton, actor
Alexander Kendrick, journalist and author
Adelaide Klein, actor
Felix Knight, singer and actor
Howard Koch, screenwriter
Tony Kraber, actor
Millard Lampell, screenwriter
John La Touche, lyricist
Arthur Laurents, writer
Gypsy Rose Lee, actor and ecdysiast
Madeline Lee, actress[d]
Ray Lev, classical pianist
Philip Loeb, actor
Ella Logan, actor and singer
Alan Lomax, folklorist and musicologist
Avon Long, actor and singer
Joseph Losey, director
Peter Lyon, television writer
Aline MacMahon, actor
Paul Mann, director and teacher
Margo, actor and dancer
Myron McCormick, actor
Paul McGrath, radio actor
Burgess Meredith, actor
Arthur Miller, playwright
Henry Morgan, actor
Zero Mostel, actor and comedian
Jean Muir, actor
Meg Mundy, actor
Lyn Murray, composer and choral director
Ben Myers, attorney
Dorothy Parker, writer
Arnold Perl, producer and writer
Minerva Pious, actor
Samson Raphaelson, screenwriter and playwright
Bernard Reis, accountant
Anne Revere, actor
Kenneth Roberts, writer
Earl Robinson, composer and lyricist
Edward G. Robinson, actor
William N. Robson, radio and TV writer
Harold Rome, composer and lyricist
Norman Rosten, writer
Selena Royle, actor
Coby Ruskin, TV director
Robert William St. John, journalist, broadcaster
Hazel Scott, jazz and classical musician
Pete Seeger, folk singer
Lisa Sergio, radio personality
Artie Shaw, jazz musician
Irwin Shaw, writer, playwright
Robert Lewis Shayon, former president of radio and TV directors' guild
Ann Shepherd, actor
William L. Shirer, journalist, broadcaster
Allan Sloane, radio and TV writer
Howard K. Smith, journalist, broadcaster
Gale Sondergaard, actor
Hester Sondergaard, actor
Lionel Stander, actor
Johannes Steel, journalist, radio commentator
Paul Stewart, actor
Elliott Sullivan, actor
William Sweets, radio personality
Helen Tamiris, choreographer
Betty Todd, director
Louis Untermeyer, poet
Hilda Vaughn, actor
J. Raymond Walsh, radio commentator
Sam Wanamaker, actor
Theodore Ward, playwright
Fredi Washington, actor
Margaret Webster, actor, director and producer
Orson Welles, actor, writer and director
Josh White, blues musician
Irene Wicker, singer and actor
Betty Winkler (Keane), actor
Martin Wolfson, actor
Lesley Woods, actor
Richard Yaffe, journalist, broadcaster

Others first blacklisted after June 1950
Eddie Albert, actor
Lew Amster, screenwriter
Richard Attenborough, actor, director and producer
Norma Barzman, screenwriter
Sol Barzman, screenwriter
Orson Bean, actor
Albert Bein, screenwriter
Harry Belafonte, actor and singer
Barbara Bel Geddes, actress
Ben Bengal, screenwriter
Seymour Bennett, screenwriter
Leonardo Bercovici, screenwriter
Herschel Bernardi, actor
John Berry, actor, screenwriter and director
Henry Blankfort, screenwriter
Laurie Blankfort, artist
Roman Bohnen, actor
Allen Boretz, screenwriter and songwriter
Phoebe Brand, actress
John Bright, screenwriter
Phil Brown, actor
Harold Buchman, screenwriter
Sidney Buchman, screenwriter
Luis Buñuel, director
Val Burton, screenwriter
Hugo Butler, screenwriter
Alan Campbell, screenwriter
Charles Chaplin, actor, director and producer
Maurice Clark, screenwriter
Richard Collins, screenwriter
Charles Collingwood, radio commentator
Dorothy Comingore, actress
Jeff Corey, actor
George Corey, screenwriter
Irwin Corey, actor and comedian
Oliver Crawford, screenwriter
John Cromwell, director
Charles Dagget, animator
Danny Dare, choreographer
Jules Dassin, director
Ossie Davis, actor
Ruby Dee, actress
Dolores del Río, actress
Karen DeWolf, screenwriter
Howard Dimsdale, writer
Ludwig Donath, actor
Arnaud d'Usseau, screenwriter
Phil Eastman, cartoon writer
Leslie Edgley, screenwriter
Edward Eliscu, screenwriter
Faith Elliott, animator
Cy Endfield, screenwriter and director
Guy Endore, screenwriter
Francis Edward Faragoh, screenwriter
Frances Farmer, actress
Howard Fast, writer
John Henry Faulk, radio personality
Jerry Fielding, composer
Carl Foreman, producer and screenwriter
Anne Froelick, screenwriter
Lester Fuller, director
Bert Gilden, screenwriter
Lee Gold, screenwriter
Harold Goldman, screenwriter
Michael Gordon, director
Jay Gorney, screenwriter
Lee Grant, actress
Morton Grant, screenwriter
Anne Green, screenwriter
Jack T. Gross, producer
Margaret Gruen, screenwriter
David Hilberman, animator
Tamara Hovey, screenwriter
John Hubley, animator
Edward Huebsch, screenwriter
Ian McLellan Hunter, screenwriter
Kim Hunter, actress
John Ireland, actor
Daniel James, screenwriter
Paul Jarrico, producer and screenwriter
Gordon Kahn, screenwriter
Victor Kilian, actor
Sidney Kingsley, playwright
Alexander Knox, actor
Mickey Knox, actor
Lester Koenig, producer
Charles Korvin, actor
Hy Kraft, screenwriter
Constance Lee, screenwriter
Robert Lees, screenwriter
Carl Lerner, editor and director
Irving Lerner, director
Sam Levene, actor
Lewis Leverett, actor
Alfred Lewis Levitt, screenwriter
Helen Slote Levitt, screenwriter
Mitch Lindemann, screenwriter
Norman Lloyd, actor
Ben Maddow, screenwriter
Arnold Manoff, screenwriter
John McGrew, animator
Ruth McKenney, writer
Bill Meléndez, animator
John "Skins" Miller, actor
Paula Miller, actress
Josef Mischel, screenwriter
Karen Morley, actress
Henry Myers, screenwriter
Mortimer Offner, screenwriter
Alfred Palca, writer and producer
Larry Parks, actor
Leo Penn, actor
Irving Pichel, director
Louis Pollock, screenwriter
Abraham Polonsky, screenwriter and director
William Pomerance, animation executive
Vladimir Pozner, screenwriter
Stanley Prager, director
John Randolph, actor
Maurice Rapf, screenwriter
Rosaura Revueltas, actress
Robert L. Richards, screenwriter
Frederic I. Rinaldo, screenwriter
Martin Ritt, actor and director
W. L. River, screenwriter
Marguerite Roberts, screenwriter
David Robison, screenwriter
Naomi Robison, actress
Louise Rousseau, screenwriter
Jean Rouverol (Butler), actress and writer
Shimen Ruskin, actor
Madeleine Ruthven, screenwriter
Waldo Salt, screenwriter
John Sanford, screenwriter
Bill Scott, voice actor
Martha Scott, actress
Joshua Shelley, actor
Madeleine Sherwood, actress
Reuben Ship, screenwriter
Viola Brothers Shore, screenwriter
George Sklar, playwright
Art Smith, actor
Louis Solomon, screenwriter and producer
Ray Spencer, screenwriter
Janet Stevenson, writer
Philip Stevenson, writer
Donald Ogden Stewart, screenwriter
Arthur Strawn, screenwriter
Bess Taffel, screenwriter
Julius Tannenbaum, producer
Frank Tarloff, screenwriter
Shepard Traube, director and screenwriter
Dorothy Tree, actress
Paul Trivers, screenwriter
George Tyne, actor
Michael Uris, writer
Peter Viertel, screenwriter
Bernard Vorhaus, director
John Weber, producer
Richard Weil, screenwriter
Hannah Weinstein, producer
John Wexley, screenwriter
Michael Wilson, screenwriter
Nedrick Young, actor and screenwriter
Julian Zimet, screenwriter

Fonte: Wikipedia

Luta de classes

Socialismo -  China x URSS

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